Training > IoT & Embedded Development > Embedded Linux Development (LFD450)
INSTRUCTOR-LED COURSE

Embedded Linux Development (LFD450)

This instructor-led course will give you the step-by-step framework for developing an embedded Linux product. Starting with the cross-compiler, you’ll learn about setting up a development system, boot loaders, the kernel, drivers, device tree, and all the various software and decisions that need to be made when building a user space root filesystem, such as those in use in consumer electronics, military, medical, industrial, and auto industries. Hands-on labs with a RISC-V based emulated development target allow students to practice both coding and building the various parts of the system covered in class.

Who Is It For

This course is for experienced developers who need to develop an embedded Linux product from the ground up.
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What You’ll Learn

In this course you will learn about the Linux kernel architecture, emphasizing the essential points relevant to adapting the kernel to a custom embedded platform. The course also covers techniques for right-sizing systems to meet project constraints, the multitude of resources available for constructing a cross development environment for embedded projects, the options available for populating libraries and application user-spaces to meet the goals and constraints of embedded systems, and more.
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What It Prepares You For

The course will prepare you to use the tools and techniques necessary for developing embedded Linux devices.
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Course Outline
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Introduction
- Objectives
- Who You Are
- The Linux Foundation
- Copyright and No Confidential Information
- Linux Foundation Training
- Certification Programs and Digital Badging
- Linux Distributions
- Platforms
- Preparing Your System
- Things change in Linux
- Documentation and Links
Preliminaries
- Linux Distributions
- Virtual Machine Installation
- Procedures
- Labs
How to Work in OSS Projects **
- Overview on How to Contribute Properly
- Know Where the Code is Coming From: DCO and CLA
- Stay Close to Mainline for Security and Quality
- Study and Understand the Project DNA
- Figure Out What Itch You Want to Scratch
- Identify Maintainers and Their Work Flows and Methods
- Get Early Input and Work in the Open
- Contribute Incremental Bits, Not Large Code Dumps
- Leave Your Ego at the Door: Don’t Be Thin-Skinned
- Be Patient, Develop Long Term Relationships, Be Helpful
Embedded and Real-Time Systems Concepts
- Basic Concepts
- Protection Motivations
- Off the Shelf (OTS)
- Embedded Caveats
- Real Time Operating Systems
- Real Time Linux
- Custom Hardware Assistance
- Resources
Cross-Development Environments: Goals and Needs
- Introduction
- Why is it Hard?
- Project Goal Considerations
- Links to Additional Discussions
- Labs
Kbuild System
- Introduction
- Kbuild Makefiles
- Kconfig Basics
- Searching Kconfig
Cross-Development Toolchain
- The Compiler Triplet
- Built-in Linux Distribution Cross Compiler
- Linaro
- CodeSourcery
- crosstool-ng
- Buildroot
- OpenEmbedded
- Yocto Project
- Clang
- Labs
QEMU
- What is QEMU?
- Why use QEMU?
- Emulated Architectures
- Image Formats
- Labs
Booting a Target Development Board from uSD
- Why do we use uSD cards?
- Getting SW onto a uSD card
- Booting from flash
- Why is using uSD cards a bad idea?
- Labs
Booting a Target Development Board over Ethernet
- Using virtual Hardware
- An easier way to develop
- The Boot Sequence using TFTP and NFSroot
- Objectives of the Lab
- Labs
Boot loaders and U-Boot
- Boot Code Stages
- Some GPL BIOSes
- Some GPL Boot Loaders
- Das U-Boot
- U-Boot Command Line
- U-Boot Environment
- Labs
Kernel Configuration, Compilation, Booting
- Configuring the Kernel for the Development Board
- Labs
Device Drivers**
- Types of Devices
- Device Nodes
- Character Drivers
- An Example
- Labs
Device Trees
- What are Device Trees?
- What Device Trees Do and What They Do Not Do
- Device Tree Syntax
- Device Tree Walk Through
- Device Tree Bindings
- Device Tree support in Boot Loaders
- Using Device Tree Data in Drivers
- Coexistence and Conversion of Old Drivers
- Labs
Target Filesystem Packaging
- Embedded Filesystem Goals
- Directories: a Survey
- Embedded Filesystem Types
Build Target Root Filesystem
- Objectives of the Lab
- Labs
Root Filesystem Choices
- SysV init vs. BusyBox init
- udev vs. BusyBox mdev
- Systemd
- C Library Choices
- Labs
Configuring uClibc
- Configuring uClibc for NFS
- Labs
Another Alternate C-library: musl **
- What is musl?
- Configuring BuildRoot for musl
- Labs
Build BusyBox Utility Suite
- Basic Workings
- Integrated with Buildroot
- Labs
Kernel Monitoring and Debugging
- Tracing and Profiling
- Ftrace, Trace-Cmd, Kernelshark
- Perf
- Using perf
- sysctl
- SysRq Key
- oops Messages
- Kernel Debuggers
- debugfs
Right-Sizing
- Oft-Needed Embedded Components
- Taking Inventory of Kernel Sizes
Memory Technology Devices (Flash Memory Filesystems)
- What are MTD Devices?
- NAND vs. NOR vs. eMMC
- Driver and User Modules
- Flash Filesystems
Compressed Filesystems
- SquashFS
- Deploying in an MTD Partition
- Labs
System Upgrades
- When do we need to update?
- Update strategies
- Prebuilt upgrade systems
- Labs
Real-Time Extensions
- Predictability and Preemption and Locks
- PREEMPT RT Project
- Real-Time Checklist
Closing and Evaluation Survey
- Evaluation Survey
Kernel Architecture Preview
- Linux and UNIX
- Monolithic and Micro Kernels
- Main Kernel Tasks
- User-Space and Kernel-Space
Kernel Source Tree Overview
- Installation and Layout of the Kernel Source
- Kernel Browsers
- Kernel Configuration Files
- Why is it Hard? Part 2
Kernel Programming Preview
- Coding Style
- kernel-doc
- Using Generic Kernel Routines and Methods
- Error Numbers, Printing Kernel Output, syslogd
- Task Structure
- Memory Allocation
- Transferring Data between User and Kernel Space
Modules
- What are Modules?
- A Trivial Example
- Compiling Modules
- Modules vs Built-in
- Module Utilities
- Automatic Module Loading
- Module Usage Count
- Module Licensing
- Exporting Symbols
- Resolving Symbols **
- Labs
Basic Target Development Board Setup
- Objectives of the Lab
- Labs
Booting the Target Development Board from uSD
- Objectives of the Lab
- Labs
Booting a Target Development Board over Ethernet
- An easier way to develop
- The Boot Sequence using TFTP and NFSroot
- Objectives of the Lab
- Labs

** These sections may be considered in part or in whole as optional. They contain either background reference material, specialized topics, or advanced subjects. The instructor may choose to cover or not cover them depending on classroom experience and time constraints.
Prerequisites
The course is primarily intended for experienced developers, programmers, and engineers who are interested in learning how to adapt Linux to an embedded system. You should be familiar with basic Linux utilities, know the C programming language, and be comfortable developing for Linux or UNIX. Pre-class preparation material will be provided before class.
Reviews
Oct 2022
This course kept at a good pace, and stayed on schedule.
Oct 2022
QEMU, NFS, very knowledgeable instructor.
Jul 2022
Very well designed course.
Jul 2022
Your depth of knowledge and experience was great.
Jul 2022
The breadth of coverage was very good. Behan was very good at communicating, very friendly, and helpful.
Jul 2022
How enthusiastic and knowledgeable the instructor was.
Jul 2022
It covered a lot of the essential content.